Plasmids are mobile genetics elements that play an important role in the environmental adaptation of microorganisms. Although plasmids are usually analyzed in cultured microorganisms, there is a need for methods that allow for the analysis of pools of plasmids (plasmidomes) in environmental samples. To that end, several molecular biology and bioinformatics methods have been developed; however, they are limited to environments with low diversity and cannot recover large plasmids. Here, we present PlasFlow, a novel tool based on genomic signatures that employs a neural network approach for identification of bacterial plasmid sequences in environmental samples. PlasFlow can recover plasmid sequences from assembled metagenomes without any prior knowledge of the taxonomical or functional composition of samples with an accuracy up to 96%. It can also recover sequences of both circular and linear plasmids and can perform initial taxonomical classification of sequences. Compared to other currently available tools, PlasFlow demonstrated significantly better performance on test datasets. Analysis of two samples from heavy metal-contaminated microbial mats revealed that plasmids may constitute an important fraction of their metagenomes and carry genes involved in heavy-metal homeostasis, proving the pivotal role of plasmids in microorganism adaptation to environmental conditions.